LET’S LEARN TENSE AND TIME(आओ काल और समय सीखें)

Tense (काल)

INTRODUCTION (परिचय)

  • In this article, we will be focusing on the concepts of  Time and Tense. (इस लेख में, हम समय और काल की अवधारणाओं पर ध्यान केंद्रित करेंगे।)
  • We will be differentiate between Time and Tense (हम समय और काल के बीच अंतर करेंगे)
  • We will be learning the kinds of tense we have in English grammar with the help of various examples.(हम अंग्रेजी व्याकरण में विभिन्न उदाहरणों की मदद से काल के प्रकार सीखेंगे।)

WHAT IS TIME AND TENSE? (समय और काल क्या है?)

  • Time and tense are two free words. (समय और काल दो स्वतंत्र शब्द हैं।)
  • There is similarity and differences among them. (उनमें समानता और अंतर है।)
  • It is necessary not to confuse the name of a verb tense with the way we use it to talk about time.(समय के बारे में बात करने के लिए इसका उपयोग करने के तरीके के साथ एक क्रिया काल के नाम को भ्रमित न करना आवश्यक है)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TIME AND TENSE

TIME

TENSE

Time is a non – grammatical term. (समय एक गैर व्याकरणिक शब्द है।)Tense is a grammatical term. (काल एक व्याकरणिक शब्द है।)
It is a familiar term in the English dictionary.(यह अंग्रेजी शब्दकोश में एक परिचित शब्द है।) It is not a familiar word of dictionary. (यह शब्दकोष का एक परिचित शब्द नहीं है।)
We identify difference between passing days, months and years through them. (हम उनके माध्यम से गुजरने वाले दिनों, महीनों और वर्षों के बीच अंतर की पहचान करते हैं।)Tense is a form of verb which represents time.(यह क्रिया का वह रूप है जो समय का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है।)
It is a global perception that has been divided globally. (यह एक वैश्विक धारणा है जिसे विश्व स्तर पर विभाजित किया गया है।)We learn the various forms of verbs in various kind of Tense through this. (हम इस के माध्यम से काल की विभिन्न प्रकार क्रियाओं के विभिन्न रूपों सीखते हैं।)
It is free of language. (यह भाषा से मुक्त है।)Tense is neither a global perception nor free of language. (काल न एक वैश्विक धारणा है और न ही भाषा से मुक्त है।)

It has been divided universally(इसे सार्वभौमिक रूप से विभाजित किया गया है ) :

Past (भूत)

Present (वर्तमान)

Future (भविष्य)

Strictly , only two English tenses are identified by the verb:

past (भूत) – Gone
present (वर्तमान) – Goes

ALL ABOUT TENSE (काल के बारे में सबकुछ)

DEFINTION
  • Tenses are the important part of  the English language. (काल अंग्रेजी भाषा का महत्वपूर्ण हिस्सा है।)
  • Tenses show the time when an activity takes place . (जब कोई गतिविधि होती है, तो काल उस समय को दर्शाता है।)

TYPES OF TENSE

Tense (काल)
  • Basically, we have three types of Tenses in English language. (मूल रूप से, हमारे पास अंग्रेजी भाषा में तीन प्रकार के काल हैं।)
  • Look at the picture given above. (ऊपर दी गई तस्वीर को देखें।) It represents all three types of tenses we have. (यह हमारे पास मौजूद सभी तीन प्रकार के काल का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है।)
  1. Past tense (भूत काल)
  2. Present tense (वर्तमान काल)
  3. Future tense (भविष्यकाल)
  • All these tenses are sub -divided in four categories. (ये सभी काल चार श्रेणियों में विभाजित हैं।)
  1. Simple (सरल )
  2. Continuous (अपूर्ण)
  3. Perfect (पूर्ण)
  4. Perfect continuous (पूर्ण अपूर्ण)
  • Let’s learn types of  tenses through various examples. (आइए विभिन्न उदाहरणों के माध्यम से काल के प्रकार जानें।)

Past Tense ((भूत काल))

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + V2 (II form of verb) + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + didnot + V1 (I form of verb) + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : Did + subject  + V1 (I form of verb) + Object +?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : Did+ subject  + not + V1 (I form of verb) + Object +?
Ex.- THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)
Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)

Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I WorkedI didnot workdid I work?did I not work?
you workedyou did not workdid you work ?  did you not work?
he workedhe did not workdid he work? did he not work?
we workedwe did not workdid we work?did we not work?
they workedthey did not workdid they work?did they not work?
 

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + was/were+ V1 + ing + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + was/were+ not + V1 + ing + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : + was/were + subject + V1 + ing + Object
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : was/were + subject + not + V1 + ing + Object

Ex.- THE PAST CONTINUOUS  TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)

Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I was workingI was not workingwas I working? was I not working?
you were workingyou were not workingwere you working?ere you not working?
he was working he was not workingwas he working ?was he not working?
we were workingwe were not workingwere we working?were we not working?
they were workingthey were not workingwere they working?were they not working?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + had+ V3  + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + had+ not + V3 + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : had+ subject + V3 + Object+ ?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) :had+ subject + not+ V3 + Object+?

Ex.- THE PAST PERFECT TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I had workedI had not workedhad I worked ?had I not worked ?
you had workedyou had not workedhad you worked ?had you not worked ?
he had workedhe had not workedhad he worked ?had I not worked ?
 we had worked we had not workedhad  we worked ?had we not worked ?
they had workedthey had not workedhad they worked ?had they not worked ?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + had + been + V1 + ing + object 
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) :Subject + had + not + been + V1 + ing + object 
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : had + Subject+ been + V1 + ing + object +?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : had + Subject+ been + not + V1 + ing + object +?
Ex.- THE Past PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)
Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I had been workingI had not been workinghad I been working?had I been not working?
you had been workingyou had not been workinghad you been working?had you been not working?
he had been workinghe had not been workinghad he been working?had he been not working?
we had been workingwe had not been workinghad we been working?had we been not working?
they had been workingthey had not been workinghad they been working?had they been not working?

Present tense (वर्तमान काल)

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + V1  (I form of verb) + s/es (only with singular subject)+ Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + does not (for singular subject)/do not  (for plural subject)+ V1 (I form of verb) + Object 
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : Does/do + subject  + V1 (I form of verb) + Object +?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) :Does/do + subject  + not + V1 (I form of verb) + Object +?
Ex.- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)
Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I workI do not workdo I work?do I not work?
you workyou do not workdo you work? do you not work?
he workshe does not workdoes he work? does he not work?
we workwe  do not workdo we work? do we not work?
they workthey do not workdo they work? do they not work?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + is/am/are + V1 + ing + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + is/am/are + not + V1 + ing + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : is/am/are + subject + V1 + ing + Object
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : is/am/are + subject + not + V1 + ing + Object

Ex.- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)

Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I am workingI am not workingam I working?am I not working? 
you are workingyou are not workingare you working? are you not working? 
he is workinghe is not workingis he working? is he not working? 
we are workingwe are not workingare we working? are we not working? 
they are workingthey are not workingare they working? are they not working? 

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + has (for singular subject) / have (for plural subject)+ V3  + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + has not/ have not + V3 + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : has / have + subject + V3 + Object+ ?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) :has / have+ subject + not+ V3 + Object+?

Ex.- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)

Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I have worked I have not workedhave I worked?have I not worked?
you have worked you have not workedhave you worked?have you not worked?
he has worked he has not workedhas he worked?has he worked?
we have worked we have not workedhave we worked?have you not worked?
they have worked they have not workedhave they worked?have they not worked?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + has been(for singular subject) / have been (for plural subject)+ V1  + ing+ Object + since/ for + time
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + has / have + not been + V1  + ing+ Object + since/ for + time
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : has / have + subject +been + V1 + ing+ Object+ since/ for + time ?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : has / have + subject + not been + V1 + ing+ Object+ since/ for + time ?

Note :

  • For is used with a period of time which is not specified. "For"समय की अवधि के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है जो निर्दिष्ट नहीं है।) like, for 2 hours, for 1 week etc. 
  • Since is used when the time is specified. ("since" समय की अवधि के साथ प्रयोग किया जाता है जो निर्दिष्ट  है।)

Ex.- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)

Negative (नकारात्मक)

Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I have been working for 2 hoursI have not been working for 2 hourshave I been working for 2 hours?have I not been working for 2 hours ?
you have been working for 2 hoursyou have not been working for 2 hourshave you been working for 2 hours?have you not been working for 2 hours ?
he has been working for 2 hourshe has not been working for 2 hourshas he been working for 2 hours?has he not been working for 2 hours ?
we have been working for 2 hourswe have not been working for 2 hourshave we been working for 2 hours?have we not been working for 2 hours ?
they have been working for 2 hoursthey have not been working for 2 hourshave they been working for 2 hours?have they not been working for 2 hours ?

FUTURE TENSE (भविष्यकाल)

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + will/shall + V1  + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + will not/shall not + V1  + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : will/shall +  Subject +  V1  + Object+ ?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) will/shall +  Subject + not +   V1  + Object+ ?
Ex.- THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)
Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I shall/will workI shall/will not workshall I work?shall I not work?
you will workyou will not workwill you work?will you not work?
he will workhe will not workwill he work?will he not work?
we shall/will workwe shall/will not workshall we work ?shall we not work ?
they will workthey will not workwill they work?will they not work?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + will be/shall be + V1 + ing + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + will be/shall be + not + V1 + ing + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : will b/shall + subject + be+  V1 + ing + Object
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : will/shall + subject + be + not + V1 + ing + Object

Ex.- THE CONTINUOUS FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I will/shall be workingI will/shall not be workingshall I be working?shall I not be working?
you will be workingyou will not be working will you be working?will you not be working?
he will  be workinghe will not be workingwill he be working?will he not be working?
we will/shall be workingwe will/shall not be workingshall we be working?shall we not be working?
they  will be working they will not be working will they be working?will they not be working?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + will have / shall have + V3  + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + will not have / shall not have + V3  + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : will/shall +  Subject + have + V3  + Object +?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : will/shall +  Subject + not+ have + V3  + Object +?

Ex.- THE PERFECT FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)

Negative (नकारात्मक)

Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I shall have workedI shall not have workedshall I have worked?shall I not have worked?
you will have workedyou will not have  workedwill you have worked?will you not have worked?
he will have workedhe will not have workedwill he have worked?will he not have worked?
we shall have workedwe shall not have workedshall we have worked?shall we not have worked?
they will have workedthey will not have workedwill they have worked?will they not have worked?

Rules (नियम)

  1. Affirmative (सकारात्मक) :  Subject + will have / shall have + been+ V1 + ing + Object
  2. Negative (नकारात्मक) : Subject + will not have / shall not have + been+ V1+ ing   + Object
  3. Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) : will/shall +  Subject + have + been+ V1 + ing  + Object +?
  4. Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक ) : will/shall +  Subject + not+ have +been + V1+ ing   + Object +?

Ex.- THE PRESENT PERFECT FUTURE TENSE OF THE VERB (to work)

Affirmative (सकारात्मक)Negative (नकारात्मक)

Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक)

Interrogative Negative(  प्रश्नवाचक नकारात्मक )

I shall have been workingI shall not have been workingshall I have been working ?shall I not have been working ?
you will have been workingyou will not have been workingwill you have been working ?will you not have been working ?
he will have been workinghe will not have been workingwill he have been working ?will he not have been working ?
we shall have been workingwe shall not have been workingshall we have been working ?shall we not have been working ?
they will have been workingthey will not have been workingwill they have been working ?will they not have been working ?

COCLUSION (निष्कर्ष)
  • To conclude this , we can say that Time is a psychological projection of the real time visualized by a speaker and understood by the listener. (समय एक वक्ता द्वारा देखे गए और श्रोता द्वारा समझे गए वास्तविक समय का मनोवैज्ञानिक प्रक्षेपण है।)
  • Present time can be real time ; it may stretch to a part of the day like evening, morning . The present can extend from a day, to a year, a decade, or even a century.(वर्तमान समय वास्तविक समय हो सकता है; यह दिन के एक हिस्से में शाम, सुबह की तरह फैल सकता है। वर्तमान एक दिन से लेकर एक साल, एक दशक या एक सदी तक हो सकता है।)
  • Tense is the selection of proper verb form to express the action. Each complete verb has five forms: (तनाव, क्रिया को व्यक्त करने के लिए उचित क्रिया रूप का चयन है। प्रत्येक पूर्ण क्रिया के पाँच रूप होते हैं:)
    eat, eats. ate, eaten, eating
  • The suitable verb form is then supported by relevant helping verbs or modals as per the time, stage, and nuance of the action to be expressed. (उपयुक्त क्रिया रूप को तब व्यक्त की जाने वाली क्रिया के समय, चरण और बारीकियों के अनुसार प्रासंगिक मदद क्रियाओं या तौर-तरीकों द्वारा समर्थित किया जाता है।)
EXERCISE QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 
  1. Differentiate between Time and tense. (समय और काल के बीच अंतर करें।)
  2. What is a Tense ? How many kinds of tenses we have? Elaborate. (काल क्या है? हमारे पास कितने प्रकार के काल हैं? विस्तृत करें।)
  3. Write down the rules of Past perfect tense with suitable examples. (उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ Past perfect tense के नियम लिखिए।)
  4. How the time and tense are linked with each other? (समय और काल एक दूसरे के साथ कैसे जुड़े हैं?)
  5. Fill in the blanks:   The new study has (a) ………………. (find) that birds living in cities (b) ………………. (be) larger brains while species with smaller brains (c) ………………. (find) almost exclusively in rural locations. Researchers at Sweden’s Uppsala University (d) ………………. (look) at 82 bird species in central. European cities and in the surrounding countryside and (e) ………………. (found) that birds with relatively large brains, such as crows and magpies (f) ………………. (inhabit) urban areas.
  6. Write down the rules of Present continuous tense with suitable examples. (उपयुक्त उदाहरणों के साथ Present continuous tense के नियम लिखिए।)
  7. Identify the tense in each of the following sentence. (निम्नलिखित प्रत्येक वाक्य में काल को पहचानें।)
  1. Will you be 13 or 14 next month? 
  2. What are you doing here? 
  3. Is she going to fly to Turkey in summer? 
  4. Had you played football? 
  5. Will they be playing handball? 
  6. Had it been raining all day? 
  7. Will they have won the match? 
  8. Will she have been waiting for me? 

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