FORESTS

forest

Introduction

There are many areas of land on our earth’s surface which are filled with treesand plants. They are known as forests. These forests are the supportive system for many living beings on our planet.

Friends, in this chapter we will learn more about forests, which are the different types of forests, why are they so important and how we can protect them.

  • The area of land which is dominated by trees is basically called a forest.
  • They provide shelter to 80% of animals living on lands.
  • About 31% of the world’s land area is covered by forests.
forest
FOREST
  • Forests are classified on the basis of the distance they are from the equator.

Tropical forests

  • Tropical forests can be divided into two types. They are evergreen forests and deciduous forests.
  • Tropical rainforests are found near the equator.
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TROPICAL FORESTS
  • The temperature of these forests is super hot around the year.
  • The humidity is also relatively high in these forests and they get about 200mm of rainfall a year.
  • About 57% of the tropical rainforests are found in the Amazon basin of Latin America.
  • There are about 2500 tree species in the Amazon forests.
  • Tropical rainforests are being constantly damaged by humans for different reasons.
  • These reasons include logging, agriculture, hydroelectric development, industrial fuels, etc.
  • Tropical deciduous forests are found to be spread over the monsoonal forests in southeastern and southern Asia.
  • The trees that are present in these forests are adaptive to resist the droughts in summer.

Temperate Forests

  • Temperate forests can be divided into coniferous forests, deciduous forests, mixed, and broadleaved evergreen.
  • Deciduous forests are mainly found in the southern parts of Boreal forests.
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TEMPERATE FOREST
  • Temperate deciduous forests have cold winters and warm summers.
  • The temperature may dip to -30 degrees celsius.
  • These forests have four distinct seasons.
  • The most popular trees in these regions are oaks, beeches, maples, and hickories.
  • During the winter season, the leaves on all the trees fall off.
  • There are different animals too that are found in temperate forests.
  • They include beavers, deers, black and brown bears, foxes, rabbits, and various species of birds.
  • These forests have four distinct seasons.
  • The most popular trees in these regions are oaks, beeches, maples, and hickories.
  • During the winter season, the leaves on all the trees fall off.
  • There are different animals too that are found in temperate forests.
  • They include beavers, deers, black and brown bears, foxes, rabbits, and various species of birds.

Boreal Forests

  • Boreal forests are home to many evergreen trees which remain green all year long.
  • These forests receive lesser rainfall when compared to other forests.
boreal, forests
BOREAL FOREST
  • Evergreen trees have needles which does not require much water as regular trees.
  • Boreal forests are mainly seen in the northern hemisphere.
  • They are also seen in high latitudes of North America and Eurasia. Here, these forests spread from Scandinavian to eastern Siberia.
  • About 20% of the world’s forest area comprises boreal forests.
  • The climate here is extremely cold.
  • Even the soil is found beneath and surface, and the frost-free season remains for about 50 to 100 days.
  • The main trees that are found in these forests are larches, spruces, and firs.
  • There is a possibility for frequent fires in the boreal forests.

Plantation Forests

  • About 7% of the world’s forest cover is plantation forests.
  • There are 140 million hectares of these forests around the world.
plantation, forests
PLANTATION FOREST
  • 40% of the industrial wood is produced by the plantation forests.
  • Forests play a vital role in sustaining life on earth.
  • Trees in the forests help to regulate the climate of a place.
  • Forests increase the humidity of air and hence, greater rainfall occurs.
  • Some trees such as coconuts are very helpful in the coastal areas to break the strong winds.
  • They help in purifying the air we breathe.
  • Trees take in a high amount of carbon dioxide present in the air and give us oxygen.
  • Forests help in filtering the water we drink.
  • It is due to them that the erosions are prevented.
  • Forests act as buffers against climatic changes.
  • Along with these, forests help in supporting the lives of common people to thrive.
  • The permanent removal of trees and plants for non-forest use is called deforestation.
deforestation
DEFORESTATION
  • Mainly, this is done for agricultural expansion, the building of roads, urbanization, mining activities, etc.
  • There are many consequences that we are facing due to deforestation activities.
  • Main problems include flooding, climatic changes, an increase in the rate of carbon dioxide, loss of biodiversity, etc.
  • About 10% of global warming is caused due to the loss of forests and trees.
  • Each day, there is the extinction of 137 species of animals.
  • Due to deforestation, about 50,000 species are disappearing each year.

Sundar Lal Bahuguna

  • Sundar Lal Bahuguna is the founder of the Chipko Movement.
  • It is also known as Chipko Andolan.
  • This is a well-known forest conservation movement where the people embraced the trees to prevent others from cutting them down.
  • In the year 1987, the Chipko movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award.

  • We should teach others the importance of forests and how they support us in our life.
  • Afforestation is the best remedy for saving trees and forests.
  • Join the communities to plant trees together and encourage others as well.
  • Damaged ecosystems can be restored or recreated.
  • Finding ways to recycle products.



Key points to be noted:

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  • The area of land which is dominated by trees is basically called a forest.
  • Forests are classified on the basis of the distance they are from the equator
  • Different types of forests are tropical forests, temperate forests, boreal forests, plantation forests.
  • Forests play a vital role in sustaining life on earth.
  • Forests increase the humidity of air and hence, greater rainfall occurs.
  • Trees in the forests prevent erosion, floods, etc.
  • The permanent removal of trees and plants for non-forest use is called deforestation
  • About 10% of global warming is caused due to the loss of forests and trees.
  • We should teach others the importance of forests and how they support us in our life.
  • Afforestation is the best remedy for saving trees and forests.

Questions to practise:

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  1. What is a forest?
  2. Which are the different types of forests?
  3. Are forests important for sustaining our life on earth?
  4. Define deforestation.
  5. What are the harmful effects of deforestation?
  6. How can we save our trees and forests?

Check your knowledge with our simple quiz!

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